A short informational article about three Arabian stars from the Orion and Taurus constellations.
By the Author.
Betelgeuse (pronounced in America as if it were written “beetle juice,” and in other English countries as “betel-JUZ”) is a very bright variable star visible in our night sky.
Its name “Betelgeuse” is a derivation (Latinization) of its original Arabic name, Ibt al-Jauzā, meaning “The Armpit of Orion.”
- Right Ascension: about 4h 35m 55s.
- Declination: about +16° 30′ 33″.
- Absolute / Apparent Magnitude: -6 / 0.0-1.3
“The name of Betelgeuse has nothing to do with beetles, beetroot, or juice. Like many or most of our star-names, it comes from an Arabic phrase that got progressively corrupted by European writers who passed it on to each other. Richard Hinckley Allen in his classic book on Star Names (1899, reprinted by Dover in 1963) confidently gives the original as Ibt al Jauzah, “Armpit of the Central One,” and then gives a string of those European variations – Bed Elgueze, Beit Algueze, Bet El-geuze, Beteigeuze, Betelguese, Betelgueze, Betelgeux, Beldengeuse, Bectelgeuze, Bedalgeuze, and Ied Algueuze.”from Universal Workshop
Betelgeuse is a variable star: its magnitude ranges from 0 to about 1.3 within a specific interval of time. However, since late 2019, Betelgeuse has been dimming far lower than ever recorded before. The diagram above, from an article published on New York Times, shows the recent decrease in the magnitude of the red giant. Astronomers speculate that this dimming is a sign that the star is reaching its last stage in its evolution. See stellar evolution on Wikipedia.
The magnitude of a star, put simply, is a numerical measure of its brightness. As the measure becomes lower, the star is brighter: a -2 is brighter than a -1, a 1 brighter than a 2, and so on. Apparent magnitude is a measure of how bright a star is as it appears in the sky on Earth. Absolute magnitude is distance-adjusted.
Alnitak is one of the three stars in Orion’s Belt. In Arabic, Alnitak (pronounced an-Nitāq) translates to “The Girdle,” or “The Belt,” probably because it is a part of the Belt.
- Right Ascension: 5h 40m 45s
- Declination: -01° 56′ 34″
- Absolute / Apparent Magnitude: -5.26 / 1.77
In addition to its Arabic name an-Nitāq, the Wikipedia lists a few more Arabic terms for the star.
“Arabic terms include Al Nijād, ‘the Belt’, Al Nasak, ‘the Line’, Al Alkāt, ‘the Golden Grains or Nuts’ and, in modern Arabic, Al Mīzān al Haqq: ‘the Accurate Scale Beam.’“slightly modified from its Wikipedia page.
Note on Pronunciations
In Arabic, when certain letters follow an article like Al, you do not literally say Al and then Nitāq, as the (slightly) Latinized name would suggest, but in that case you would pronounce the Al as if it were An, because an N follows the Al. So, AN-Nitaq. The same ruling applies, of course, to other Arabic stars with the same conditions. Alnilam becomes an-Nilam, and so on. This does not apply to names like Ibt Al-Jauza, where the Al and the J would not join sounds, and the same for M.
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Aldebaran is a bright star in the Taurus constellation, often depicted as a bull. Unsurprisingly, Taurus is Latin for ‘bull.’ The name Aldebaran is Arabic for “The Follower.”
- Right Ascension: 4h 35m 55s
- Declination: +16° 30′ 33″
- Absolute / Apparent Magnitude: about -0.641 / -2.095
The influence of ancient and middle-age Arabian and Middle Eastern astronomy on the West is significant and also undeniable. In our numbers, our stars, and even some of the foundations of our medical knowledge, we see great patches of Arabic, Middle Eastern and Islamic influence.